br Methods Twenty six cancer survivors and healthy participa
Methods: Twenty-six cancer survivors and 19 healthy participants were assessed for grip and knee extension strength with the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test, Timed Up and Go, and body sway test performance. Findings: Breast cancer survivors had significantly lower hand grip strength (p < .05) and Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test scores than healthy women (p < .05). Additionally, in breast cancer survivors, hand grip strength had a significant relationship with Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Timed Up and Go scores (p < .05) but had no relationship with the total center of pressure length. Hand grip strength and Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test scores were not significantly diﬀerent in non-breast cancer survivors and healthy participants. In non-breast cancer survivors, knee extension strength had a significant relationship with the Timed Up and Go scores (p < .05).
Interpretation: The relationship between muscle strength and balance function may be characterized by the diﬀerent diagnoses in cancer survivors. The current findings showed the changes in balance function and muscle strength among cancer survivors.
Older cancer survivors experience falls because cancer-related se-quelae aﬀect virtually all body systems (Huang et al., 2014). Among patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, 11.9% experienced recent falls and 26.6% reported functional impairments (Gewandter et al., 2013). Cancer survivors exhibit decreased postural stability on the body sway test compared to age-matched controls (Schmitt et al., 2017) and may have problems with mobility and other physical functions due to persistent peripheral neuropathy (Hile et al., 2010). The Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test are used to assess balance deficits in the elderly (Mancini and Horak, 2010). The Mini-BESTest (Huang et al.,
2016) and TUG test (Foley and Hasson, 2016) are used to evaluate balance function and mobility in cancer survivors. Balance function, assessed as the amount of postural sway of the body, is defined as slight postural movements made by an individual to maintain a balanced position and is measured by the total displacement of the center of mass relative to the 1263373-43-8 of support over time (Wang et al., 2010).
A previous study showed that breast cancer survivors evaluated after completion of primary therapy had consistently lower muscle strength (20%–30%) in the upper body than healthy individuals (Harrington et al., 2011). Another study showed that 18% of survivors of extracranial solid tumors had muscle weakness, defined as dorsi-flexion torque within the lowest 10th percentile, compared to healthy age-matched reference individuals (Ness et al., 2013). These reports
S. Morishita, et al.
indicate that cancer survivors may have decreased muscle strength compared with healthy participants.
Although balance assessment is important for cancer survivors, there are few reports assessing glycolipids function. This study investigated muscle strength, balance function using the Mini-BESTest and TUG test (single and cognitive dual tasks), and body sway in cancer survivors and healthy participants. We also assessed the relationship between these outcomes in both groups. Furthermore, we assessed muscle strength, balance function, and body sway test as a subgroup analysis in breast cancer survivors and healthy women, and in non-breast cancer survivors and healthy individuals among the study participants.
2.1. Study participants
This study was a prospective, observational investigation of muscle strength and balance function among cancer survivors and healthy participants. Cancer survivors and healthy participants aged ≥18 years were recruited in September 2018. Those with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status score of 0 or 1 were en-rolled (Oken et al., 1982). The ECOG Performance Status is a 6-point scale (0 = fully active; 5 = dead) that describes a patient's level of functioning in terms of their ability to care for themselves, daily ac-tivities, and physical abilities (walking, working, and other activities) (Oken et al., 1982). Cancer survivors had to be ambulatory, able to work without any problems, and able to complete muscle strength and balance function assessments to be included in the study. Consequently, 26 cancer survivors and 19 healthy participants were included. De-mographic data, including cancer diagnoses, are given in Table 1. Furthermore, we performed a subgroup analysis with 15 breast cancer survivors and 13 healthy women, and 11 non-breast cancer survivors and 19 healthy participants among the study participants (Table 1). All participants completed the assessments in one session. The mean ages were not significantly diﬀerent (cancer survivors, 49.2 ± 10.0 [stan-dard deviation, SD] years; healthy participants, 50.5 ± 10.0 years). Four (15.4%) of the cancer survivors, and 6 (31.6%) of the healthy participants were men. No significant diﬀerence was observed in the male/female ratio, mean height, body weight, or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. In the subgroup analysis, there were no significant diﬀerences in age, height, body weight, or BMI between the two groups. The Niigata University of Health and Welfare Institutional Committee on Human Research approved the study, and written in-formed consent was obtained from all participants.